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A Development Frame Application Based on the Hibernate,the Struts and the Spring J2EE
文章来源:www.www.swedenno1.net   发布者:学生毕业作品网站  

Nicholas S.Williams

One preface along with the Java technique of gradual mature and perfect. Be establishment business enterprise class application of standard terrace,the J2 EE terrace got substantial of development .Several technique asked for help from to include in the J2 EE norm : Enterprise JavaBean (EJB), Java Servlets (Servlet), Java Server Pages(JSP), Java Message Service(JMS)etc., development many application system.But, also appeared some problem in the tradition J2 the EE the application of the development the process:

1)the antinomy of of data model and logic model. Currently the database of usage basically and all is relation type database, but the Java be essentially a kind of the language which face to object, object at saving with read usage SQL and JDBC carry on a database operation and lowered plait distance of efficiency and system of can maintenance;

2)tradition of J2 EE application much the adoption is according to the EJB heavy weight frame, this kind of frame suitable for develop a large business enterprise application, but usage the EJB container carry on development and adjust to try to need to be waste a great deal of time.For lowering the Ou of code to match sex, exaltation system of development efficiency, this text put forward one kind EE according to the J2 of the Struts frame ,the Hibernate frame and the Spring frame application development strategy.

The Hibernate Frame

Data's holding out for long time layer and Hibernate is one piece according to hold out for long time layer frame, is a kind of realization object and relation of the tool which reflect to shoot(O/R Mapping), it carried on the object of the lightweight to pack to the JDBC and make procedure member can usage object plait distance thought to operation database. It not only provided to shoot from Java to reflect of data form, but also provided a data a search and instauration mechanism. Opposite in usage JDBC and SQL to operation database, use Hibernate ability consumedly of exaltation realization of efficiency. The Hibernate frame use allocation document of the form come to the reflect of the definition Java object and data form to shoot relation, in the meantime at more deep of level of data form of relation explanation for the relations such as inherit of and containment etc. of Java object. Pass the usage HQL language sentence complications of relation the calculate way use the way of object description, to a large extent simplification logarithms according to of search, speed development of efficiency. Have in the Hibernate a simple but keep the API of view, used for to the database mean of object performance search. Want to establish or the modification be these objects, need in the procedure carry on with them to hand over with each other, then tell Hibernate to keep. So, a great deal of pack hold out for long time turn operation of business logic no longer demand write a trivial JDBC language sentence, make data last long thus the layer got biggest of simplification.

Use the Struts realization MVC structure MVC(Model-View-Controller) is put forward by the Trygve Reenskaug, first drive application in the environment SmallTalk-80, is many to hand over with each other with interface system of constitute foundation. According to the need of variable of the interface design, MVC hand over with each other constitute of system to resolve into model and see diagram, controller three part. Model(Model) is software processing problem logic at independence in outside manifestation under contents and form circumstance of inside abstract, packed the core data, logic of problem and function of calculation relation, independence in concrete of interface expression and I/O operation. See diagram(View) mean information and particular form demonstration of model data and logic relation and appearance to the customer. It acquire a manifestation information from the model, there can be many for homology of information dissimilarity of manifestation form or see diagram. The controller(Controller) is a processing the customer hand over with software with each other operation of, its job is control provide model in any variety of dissemination, insure a customer interface among the model of rightness should contact; It accept a customer of importation, give° the importation feedback model, then realization compute model control, is make model and see diagram to moderate work of parts. Usually 1 see a diagram rightness should a controller. Model, see separate of diagram and controller, make a model be able to have many manifestation to see diagram. If the customer pass a certain see the controller of diagram change the data of model, all other dependence in these see of data diagram all should reflection arrive these variety. When therefore and regardless occurrence what data variety, controller all would variety notice ally see diagram, cause manifestation of renewal. This is actually a kind of variety of model-dissemination mechanism.

The Struts Frame

The Struts frame is to be the item of Apache Jakarta to constitute part to publish luck to do at the earliest stage, it inherited MVC of each item characteristic, and did according to the characteristics of J2 EE correspond of variety with expand. The Struts frame was good to combine Jsp , Java Servlet , Java Bean, Talia etc. technique. In the Struts, what to undertake the controller role in the MVC be an ActionServlet. The ActionServlet is an in general use control module. This control module provided a processing all HTTP claim which send out Struts of entrance point. Its interception with distribute these claim to arrive correspond of action type.(these action all of type is Action son type)Moreover the control module is also responsible for using to correspond of claim the parameter fill Action Form(FromBean), and pass action type(ActionBean).Action type the business logic of the interview core, then interview Java Bean or adjust to use EJB. End action type control the power pass follow-up of JSP document, from JSP document born see diagram. All these control logic make use of Struts-config.xml the document come to allocation. See diagram in the Struts frame main from JSP born page completion, the Struts provide abundant of JSP label database, this is advantageous to separating performance logic and procedure logic.The model is with 1 or the form existence of several Java Bean. In the Struts, main existence three kinds of Bean, respectively BE: Action,  ActionForm, EJB perhaps Java Bean. The Struts frame have no concrete definition model layer of realization, in actually the development, model layer usually is close with business logic connect with each other, and want to carry on operation to the first floor data. The underneath's introduction is a kind of development strategy, lead the Hibernate into the model layer of Struts frame, usage it to carry on a data to pack with reflect to shoot, provide hold out for long time turn of support. 4 usage Hibernate and the Struts development J2 EE application 4.1 system structure diagram 3 manifestation according to Hibernate and Struts development strategy of system structure diagram.

the Spring Frame

Spring isn't particularly a web framework but a generic lightweight application framework with dedicated web support, and show the architectural differences to Struts and WebWork

In contrast to Struts or WebWork, Spring is an application framework for all layers: It offers a bean configuration foundation, AOP support, JDBC abstraction framework, abstract transaction support etc. It is a very non-intrusive effort: Your application classes do not need to depend on any Spring classes if not necessary, and you can reuse every part on its own if you like to. From its very design, the framework encourages clean separation of tiers, most importantly web tier and business logic. e.g: the validation framework does not depend on web controllers. Major goals are reusability and testability: Unnecessary container or framework dependencies can be considered avoidable evils.

Of course, Spring's own web support is nicely integrated with the framework's general patterns. Nevertheless, replacing the web solution with Struts, WebWork, or the like is easy. Both with Spring's web support or a different one, Spring allows for building a true dedicated middle tier in the web container, with the option to reuse exactly the same business logic in test environments or standalone applications. And within J2EE, your business logic will not unnecessarily depend on container services like JTA or EJB - allowing complex, well-architected web applications to run in a "simple" container like Tomcat or Resin.Note that Spring doesn't generally aim to compete with existing solutions. It rather fosters seamless integration with standards like Servlet, JSP, JTA, JNDI, JDBC, and JDO, and well-suited tools like Hibernate, Velocity, Log4J, and Caucho's Hessian/Burlap. The framework is designed to grow with the needs of your applications, in terms of technology choice: For example, you will probably use JTA via Spring's JtaTransactionManager if you need distributed transactions - but only then, as there are perfect replacements for single databases, like DataSourceTransactionManager or HibernateTransactionManager.

Spring's web framework is designed around a DispatcherServlet that dispatches requests to handlers, with configurable handler mappings, view resolution, and locale and theme resolution. The default handler is a very simple Controller interface, just offering a "ModelAndView handleRequest(request,response)" method. This can already be used for application controllers, but you will prefer the included implementation hierarchy, consisting of AbstractController, AbstractCommandController, MultiActionController, SimpleFormController, AbstractWizardFormController. Application controllers will typically be subclasses of those. Note that you can choose an appropriate base class: If you don't have a form, you don't need a FormController. This is a major difference to Struts.

You can take any object as command or form object: There's no need to implement an interface or derive from a base class. Spring's data binding is highly flexible, e.g. it treats type mismatches as validation errors that can be evaluated by the application, not as system errors. So you don't need to duplicate your business objects' properties as Strings in your form objects, just to be able to handle invalid submissions, or to convert the Strings properly. Instead, it's often preferable to bind directly to your business objects. This is another major difference to Struts which is built around required base classes like Action and ActionForm - for every type of action.  Compared to WebWork, Spring has more differentiated object roles: It supports the notion of a Controller, an optional command or form object, and a model that gets passed to the view. The model will normally include the command or form object but also arbitrary reference data. Instead, a WebWork Action combines all those roles into one single object. WebWork does allow you to use existing business objects as part of your form, but just by making them bean properties of the respective Action class. Finally, the same Action instance that handles the request gets used for evaluation and form population in the view. Thus, reference data needs to be modelled as bean properties of the Action too.

Regarding views: Spring's view resolution is extremely flexible. A Controller implementation can even write a view directly to the response, returning null as ModelAndView. In the normal case, a ModelAndView instance consists of a view name and a model Map, containing bean names and corresponding objects (like a command or form, reference data, etc). View name resolution is highly configurable, either via bean names, via a properties file, or via your own ViewResolver implementation. The abstract model Map allows for complete abstraction of the view technology, without any hassle: Be it JSP, Velocity, or anything else - every renderer can be integrated directly. The model Map simply gets transformed into an appropriate format, like JSP request attributes or a Velocity template model.

If you don't want to use Spring's web MVC but intend to leverage other solutions that Spring offers, you can integrate the web framework of your choice with Spring easily. Simply start up a Spring root application context via its ContextLoaderListener, and access it via its ServletContext attribute (or Spring's respective helper method) from within a Struts or WebWork action. Note that there aren't any "plugins" involved, therefore no dedicated integration: From the view of the web layer, you'll simply use Spring as a library, with the root application context instance as entry point. All your registered beans and all of Spring's services can be at your fingertips even without Spring's web MVC. Spring doesn't compete with Struts or WebWork in this usage, it just addresses the many areas that the pure web frameworks don't, from bean configuration to data access and transaction handling. So you are able to enrich your application with a Spring middle tier and/or data access tier, even if you just want to use e.g. the transaction abstraction with JDBC or Hibernate.

If just focussing on the web support, some of Spring's unique features are: .Clear separation of roles: controller vs validator vs command object vs form object vs model object, DispatcherServlet vs handler mapping vs view resolver, etc. .Powerful and straightforward configuration of both framework and application classes as JavaBeans, including easy in-between referencing via an application context, e.g. from web controllers to business objects and validators. .Adaptability, non-intrusiveness: Use whatever Controller subclass you need (plain, command, form, wizard, multi action, or a custom one) for a given scenario instead of deriving from Action/ActionForm for everything. .Reusable business code, no need for duplication: You can use existing business objects as command or form objects instead of mirroring them in special ActionForm subclasses. .Customizable binding and validation: type mismatches as application-level validation errors that keep the offending value, localized date and number binding, etc instead of String-only form objects with manual parsing and conversion to business objects. Customizable handler mapping, customizable view resolution: flexible model transfer via name/value Map, handler mapping and view resolution strategies from simple to sophisticated instead of one single way.

With in the J2 the EE the application very widespread customer register process for example, elucidation above-mentioned system structure is how concrete usage. The process of register is very clear: Customer from register page login.jsp importation register information, system to register the information carry on verification, if exactitude success register, otherwise hint correspond mistake information. In the development process, the usage Eclipse be used as development environment and added to carry to provide to the Struts and the Hibernate in the meantime better control and support of three square plug-in MyEclipse, Web server usage Tomcat, the database chose to use Mysql. Carry on an allocation to the Hibernate first, need to the system auto the born hibernate.cfg. xml carry on modification, allocation good database conjunction of various parameter and definition the data reflect to shoot a document. Because the Hibernate take of conjunction pond main used for test, the function isn't very good, can pass JNDI will it modification is usage Tomcat of conjunction pond.

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